All about Indian & Burmese Star tortoises, Angulates, and Golden Greeks...

Angulate Tortoises

- egg incubation -

hatching Angulate / Bowsprit tortoise

This Angulate baby decided to turn around and stay a bit longer inside the shell. He crawled out of the egg the following day.

Angulate egg incubation

Artificial incubation of Angulate / Angulated / Bowsprit tortoise (Chersina angulata) eggs, especially outside their native land, has proven to be quite challenging. Many Angulate keepers share similar stories: a great number of eggs will not develop at all, a few will start developing and then stop, and even fewer will actually hatch.

Although I’ve been fortunate to hatch a small number of baby Angulates, I haven’t yet found the best method for incubating their eggs either. I've used a few different incubators, various substrates, different temperatures, and higher or lower humidity levels. I've also incubated eggs with and without cooling (diapause), and I've left some eggs in the ground as well. No modification seemed to improve the outcome. Maybe low fertility in parents due to (?) is a contributing factor.

Incubation methods

Incubation techniques for Angulate eggs vary among breeders. Some use a cooling period before incubation and others don't. Same for drop in temperature for nights, some keepers do it and some don't.

Here are some examples of published incubation temperatures and humidity levels. For full details, please read the original publications.

1.) Thomas Bauer (Turtles, Proceedings: International Turtle & Tortoise Symposium Vienna 2002, 2006)

2.) Luke Caroldi (, 8/2011)

3.) Facebook (2014, 2017)

4.) Jürgen & Susanne Fleck (Elaphe, 3/2001)

5.) A. C. Highfield (Practical Encyclopedia of Keeping and Breeding Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles, 1996)

6.) Irmtraud Jasser-Häger & Hans-Dieter Philippen (Testudo magazine, Schildkröten Interessengemeinschaft Schweiz,, 6/2003)

7.) Milos Junek ( 8.) Gunther Koehler (Incubation of reptile eggs, 2004)

9.) Trudy Steehouder (Lacerta 52/5)

10.) Turtle Survival Alliance (TSA journal, 8/2007)

11.) Sven Wlach (Schildkröten im Fokus, 2/2008)

Angulate / Bowsprit Tortoise, Chersina angulata, pushing her egg

Angulate mama pushing her egg out. It's hard work and can take a long time because the egg is so big and the bony opening so small. When she pushes, her head goes all the way into her shell as you see above.

Angulate / Bowsprit tortoise, Chersina angulata laying an egg

Angulates lay only one, but large, egg at a time.

Angulate / Bowsprit tortoise, Chersina angulata, with her egg

Mama with her huge, freshly laid egg. After removing the egg, I let her fill the nest hole in peace.

Angulate tortoise hatching

Almost ready to come out of the egg.

Angulate tortoise (Chersina angulata) hatchling

Brand new Angulate baby.


Related pages: Angulate nesting, egg development, hatchlings p.1, hatchlings p.2, and incubators

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