All about Indian & Burmese Star tortoises, Angulates, and Golden Greeks...

Angulate Tortoises

- in captivity -

Angulate tortoise (Chersina angulata)

Angulate tortoise (Chersina angulata). Adult males have a long gular shield under the neck.

Angulate tortoises in the U.S.

Currently, the Angulate / Angulated tortoise (Chersina angulata), aka Bowsprit tortoise, is one of the more uncommon tortoise species in the U.S. There are very few Angulate tortoise keepers in the U.S., and captive bred Angulates are rarely available.

In the past, a sizable number of Angulate tortoises were exported out of Africa. Most of them are said to have died within months due to inability to adjust to the humid conditions in parts of U.S. and Europe. Angulate tortoises seem to do best in a Mediterranean type of climate areas (see map).

According to a 2000 Turtle and Tortoise Newsletter (4:8-13), 368 Angulate tortoises were imported to the U.S. between 1989 and 1997. As a comparison, 11,773 Leopard tortoises and 2,982 Sulcatas were imported during the same time period.

Note: In 2000, the U.S. Department of Agriculture halted further importation of certain land tortoises, including Leopards and Sulcatas, because they were harboring exotic ticks known to be vectors of heartwater disease.

The 2008 International Species Information System database lists Behler Conservation Center, San Diego Zoo, and Detroit Zoological Society as member institutions having Angulate tortoises. The nonprofit Behler Chelonian Center in California maintains many species of turtles and tortoises, for example, the Radiated and Burmese Star tortoises which are critically endangered. They have also successfully bred Angulate tortoises.

Angulate tortoises in Europe

The European Studbook Foundation (ESF) has managed a studbook breeding program for the Angulate tortoise since 1999. During the 1980's and 1990's, several tortoises were imported from South Africa by ESF members and other keepers. Unfortunately, reproduction has been limited and death rate has been high. Due to few participants and low numbers of tortoises in the studbook, ESF discontinued this program in 2009. Although, there are several Angulate tortoise keepers in Europe who are not listed in the studbook.

Basic care

Angulate tortoises can be fairly easy keepers if they are provided with the appropriate diet and suitable environmental conditions. As with most tortoises, Angulates thrive outdoors, at least in my warm and dry area. I have no experience in keeping them in a hot and humid climate like Florida.

I care for my Angulates pretty much the same as my Golden Greeks and Star tortoises, but I try to grow a variety of succulents for the Angulates to eat. My Stars and Greeks are not super fond of succulents, but my Angulates love them. They will eat growing succulents to the ground in no time. :O)


a.) "Bone dry" or more humid?

Captive Angulate tortoises are said to be susceptible to respiratory infections, skin infections, and shell rot if they are kept in a too damp environment. Some keepers have experienced tragic consequences, illness and death, from raising Angulates too wet and cold. Constant high humidity is believed to be their "worst enemy" in captivity and the traditional recommendation was to keep Angulates "bone dry."

However, if tortoises are kept too dry, they are prone to chronic dehydration which can lead to kidney problems and urinary stone formation. Both can be fatal. Baby tortoises can dehydrate especially quickly.

To combat excessive habitat dryness, some Angulate keepers water their enclosures in the morning and then let the substrate dry out during the day. Another solution is to provide both dry and damp humid areas to allow the tortoise to choose the conditions he needs.

As we get no summer rains, I water my outdoor pens most mornings and on hot days 2-3 times depending on the temperature. On warm days, my Angulates like to hide in damp areas under the bushes.

b.) Keep babies more humid

Jasser-Häger and Philippen recommend a higher humidity level for Angulate tortoise hatchlings and youngsters (Testudo mag, 2003). If young ones are kept in too dry conditions, they can become "Toblerone tortoises." This description makes reference to pyramided tortoises with bumpy shell growth. Toblerone is a Swiss chocolate bar shaped like a row of pyramids.

I raise my Angulate hatchlings in open top tubs in my warm tortoise room. The smallest babies like to dig into the damp New Zealand sphagnum moss under their basking lights and sleep there. During the warm months, they often spend part of the day outside. I water the baby outdoor pens just like I water the adult pens.


When indoors, strong UV lights like mercury vapor bulbs (MVB's) or the new, high output T-5 reptile UVB fluorescent linear (long) tubes are ideal. MVB's provide both heat and UV, but separate basking bulbs are needed with the T-5 tubes. See the lighting page.

Angulate tortoise keepers use various indoor substrates, including soil, coco coir, soil/coco coir mix, coconut husk chips, fir bark, and sphagnum moss. Real or artificial plants can be added for hiding.

Drinking water should be available at all times. Baby Angulate tortoises can be soaked (bathed) daily and then less frequently as they grow.

As mentioned above, some keepers spray or water the substrate in the morning to simulate native coastal conditions. Just check that not all of the substrate is constantly soaking wet. Provide some dryer areas as well.

Hatchling housing

Angulate tortoise hatchling (Chersina angulata)

Newly hatched Angulate babies will spend their first day or two in a warm incubator nursery. This one's a Hovabator.

Angulate tortoise hatchling tub

Once their bellies are healed, I move them to a baby tub. I provide both dry and damp humid areas for the little ones. Babies love to hide in the warm, damp sphagnum moss under the basking bulb. The food and water area is kept cooler and dry.

During the day, the basking bulb heats the damp sphagnum moss. A UV fluorescent tube is also turned on for part of the day if they haven't spend any time outdoors that day.

In the evening, I turn off the basking bulb. On the coldest winter nights, I may turn on the CHE and move it over the still slightly damp sphagnum moss. Most nights, I use no night heat at all because the temperature in my tortoise room usually stays above 68-70 °F even in the winter.

Angulate / Bowsprit tortoise hatchling hiding

My Angulate babies love to hide and sleep in the warm, slightly damp sphagnum moss. Every morning I dump warm water into the moss and stir it. By the time I turn the basking bulb off in the evening, the moss is only slightly damp.

Angulate tortoise (Chersina angulata) hatchling

Baby basking on the warm, damp sphagnum moss.


Adult Angulate tortoises need large outdoor areas with well draining soil. Avoid substrates that retain too much water and stay soaking wet all the time, or add some dryer areas to the enclosure. Plant food and shade plants in the enclosure and provide various hiding places.

Always keep a bowl of fresh drinking water available. Replenish the water as needed to keep it clean and cool. I see my Angulates use their outdoor water bowls as needed. When they drink, they drink a lot!

Angulate tortoises, especially males, can be fairly active. In the wild, their activity temperature range has been observed to be 60-85 °F (15-29 °C).

angulate outdoor pen

Drinking time.

Angulate / Bowsprit tortoise

Angulates love to hide under bushes and among plants.

Angulate tortoise nesting in the rain

Angulate nesting outdoors during a light rain.


In the wild, Angulate tortoises' diet varies depending on the season and the region where they live. They eat grasses, herbs, annuals, and succulents. Sometimes they also consume snails, mushrooms, insects, and feces of other animals.

In captivity, a herbivorous diet is recommended. Angulate tortoises can be offered same foods as Indian and Burmese Star tortoises, but their diet should rich in succulents. Ideally, include plants from their native habitat.

Typical food items in captivity include opuntia cactus, various succulents (e.g. sedums, echeveria), weeds (e.g. dandelion, clover, plantain), grasses, flowers (e.g. hibiscus, dandelion, petunia), some grocery store greens (e.g. endive, radicchio, winter dandelion), and possibly a little bit of squash occasionally (butternut, zucchini, pumpkin).

Note: All sedums, except Sedum acre, are generally considered safe for tortoises. Do not feed Sedum acre. It's believed to be toxic. Misty Corton in South Africa also lists Sedum morganianum and Sedum frutescens as unsuitable for Angulate tortoises due to their high oxalate content.

As with other herbivorous tortoises, Angulate tortoises' diet should be low in sugar. It may be wise to avoid feeding too much fruit, if any, because large amounts of fruit can promote flagellate (microscopic parasites) proliferation. Some keepers count squashes as vegetables and others as fruit.

Angulate / Angulated tortoise, Chersina angulata

My Angulates love, love succulents.

angulate tortoise drinking water

Do provide clean drinking water at all times. I see mine use their outdoor water dishes, but not so much inside. They can drink a lot.


Related pages: Golden care, books, Star care pages (menu below)

Unfortunately, info published on Angulates rarely covers captive care, but there are a few caresheets. For example, see the caresheet by Misty Corton (South Africa) and the Jun 2003 issue of Testudo magazine by SIGS (Switzerland). Misty Corton's web page includes a long list of plants these tortoises eat in their native habitat. The Testudo magazine is published in German, but you can copy the text from the pdf file and then translate it online. Also, Thomas Bauer (Germany) describes his captive care and breeding of Angulate tortoises in the book Turtles: Proceedings: International Turtle & Tortoise Symposium.

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